Jumat, 08 Januari 2016

What Are Strategies That Usually Pupils Use For Communication and Learning in Second Language

What Are Strategies That Usually Pupils Use For Communication and Learning in Second Language

A.  Background
- Reason about our topic
Most of the teachers think they know best, they make the student carry out various activities, they prescribe the language they should produce, all hopefully in their best interests. But as human beings students have minds of their own. Ultimately they decide how they are going to tackle the tasks of the classroom and aims of their learning. Sometimes their choices are visible to us, they put electronic dictionaries on their desk, sometimes they are invisible decisions in their privacy of their own heads, they workout translations in their minds. This independence of the research, which tried to discover the choices that students are making and to recognize them in language teaching. Because of those things, we want to know what are strategies that usually pupils use in order to be success learner in second language.
Research Questions
Our research questions is what are strategies that usually pupils use for communication & learning in second language?

B.  Literature Review
1.      Communication strategies as social interaction ( Elaine Tarone 1980 )
a.       One types of strategy is to paraphrase what you want to say :
ü Word Coinage. Another paraphrase is to make up a word to subtitute for the unknown word – “airball” for “balloon”
ü Circumlocution. L2 learner talk their way round the word – “when you make a container” for “pottery”
b.      A second overall type of communication strategy is to fall back on the first language, known as transfer, examples are :
ü Mime what you need. My daughter succeeded in getting some candles in a shop in France by singin “Happy Birthday” in English and miming blowing out candles.
2.      Communication strategies as psychological problem solving ( Faerch & Kasper 1984)
a.       Achievement Strategies
ü Codeswitching. The speaker skips the language – do you want to have some ah Zinsen? (the German word for interest)
ü Foreignerization. A Dane literally translating the Danish word for vegetables into English as "green things".
b.      Another overall grouping is interlanguage strategies, based on the learner’s evolving L2 system rather than on the L1. Among these, Faerch dan Kasper include :
ü Description. Speakers can’t remember the word for “kettle” and so describe it as “the thing that to cook water”

3.      Good language learner strategies (GGL)
a.       GLL strategy 1    :  Find a learning style that suits you
Good language learners become aware of the type of L2 learning that suits them best. Though they conform to the teaching situation to start with, they soon find ways of adapting or modifying it to suit themselves. Thus some GLLs supplement audio-lingual oor communicative language teaching by reading grammar books at home, if that is their preference. Others seek out communicative encounters to help them compensate for a classroom with an academic emphasis.
b.      GLL strategy 2    :  Involve yourself in the language process
GLLs don’t passively accept what is presented to them, but go out to meet it. They participate more in the classroom, whether visibly or not. They take the initiative and devise situations and second learning techniques for themselves. Some listen to the news in the second language on the radio; others go to see L2 films.
c.       GLL strategy 3    : Pay constant attention to expanding your language knowlegde
GLLs are not content with their knowledge of a second language, but are always trying to improve it. They make guesses abouit things they don’t know; they check whether they are right or wrong by comparing their speech with the new language they hear; and the ask native speakers to correct them. Some are continually on the lookout for clues to the second language.

4.      Types of learning strategies ( O’Malley and Chamot 1990 )
a.       Cognitive strategies involved conscious ways of tackling learning, such as note-taking, resourcing (using dictionaries and other resources) and elaboration (relating new information to old).
b.      Social strategies mean learning by interacting with others, such as working with fellow students or asking the teacher’s help.
5.      Strategy Inventory for Language Learning or SILL ( Rebecca Oxford 1990 )
a.       Direct
1.      Cognitive Strategies, that is, using all your mental processes, for instance by looking for patterns in the new language.
b.      Indirect
1.      Metacognitive strategies, that is, organizing and evaluating your knowledge, for example, by preparing in advanced what is going to come up in the next class.
2.      Affective strategies, that is, managing your emotions, say, by trying to relax when speaking.

C.  Methodology
Types of research                 : Descriptive Research
Location studies                  : Unires, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta
Research time                      : December 23rd, 2015
  Data source                          :  1. Primary Qualitative Data Sources (transcript of the interview), which means the informant is taken in a certain way because of their position or ability is considered to represent a problem that made the object of research.
The technique used to determine the research is Purposive Sampling Technique. Purposive Sampling Technique is a way of determining a number of informants prior to the study carried out, clearly indicating who used informants as well as information about what you want from each informant.
2. Secondary data sources (theory, data and information) is books, documents, internet and print media.
     Method of collecting data   :  1. Study Library is a secondary data collection techniques
that include citations and theoretical studies, data and information from a variety of books, documents, internet and print media.
2. Method Qualitative analysis is qualitative data processing techniques (words) were conducted in order to describe or discuss the results with the approach of conceptual analysis and theoretical analysis.

D.  Findings

We had been interviewed our three respondents in the same place and date.
December 23rd, 2015
Unires, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta

First respondent

1.      What are strategies that usually you do to understanding english textbook ?

For the first time I studied in English Education Department, when I read the text book I usually making a notes and rewriting what I’ve got from the coursebook or textbook, but I thought those strategy doesn’t work again for me. Ultimately I read all of the chapter or some part of the book then making the conclusion and it’s more easier than the first strategy.

Have you ever tried to guessing the meaning of some vocabularies ?

Of course, for example in one sentence there is only one word I’ll guessing it, but if in the one sentence there’s a lot of word that I don’t understand and it makes the meaning not clearly, then I check my dictionary.

So, does Ms. Jackie’s class help you to improving your L2 ?

Of course, because the lecturer not only taught about the material of the subject but also taught about how to pronounce some vocabularies and it makes me acquire a lot of new vocabularies.

2.      What are strategies that usually you do to expressing the difficult vocabularies ?

I’ll change the vocabulary that I don't understand to be my own words, for example when I want to say “pillow” but I don’t know it then I’ll said “something that you use for sleeping and lay down”.  But if I don’t have any idea I’ll ask lecturer and ask my friends to help me. But if there’s a plenty time to prepare it, I’ll check my dictionary.

Have you ever feel anxiety or nervous and afraid when you want speaking ?

Yes of course, I often feel nervous when I want to speaking L2. I am afraid if I speaking with error grammar, to anticipate those things I usually check my grammarbook to train my ability to using grammar properly. Another way is the first step I’ll make my mind relax and force myself to speaking, if I’ve speaking some sentences I’ll be confidence and I forgot about my nervous.

You said that you usually check your grammar book, when you do that ?
Yes true, I usually do that in my home and do a lot of practice,  because I thought if I bring my grammar book in everywhere I go, it’s such impossible thing, because I feel shame if I often opening my grammar book

3.      What are strategies that usually you do to communication and learning L2 ?
I usually reading a book, furthermore I forced myself to speaking in the class, the more I silent it means that my L2 didn’t improve. So I tried to speaking as long as I can.

Second respondent

1.      What are strategies that usually you do to understanding english textbook ?

When I reading a book such as coursebook or novel if I found the difficult vocabularies I’ll find it in my dictionary, to searching the meaning. Those ways very help me to understanding what is the meaning of that words.

2.      What are strategies that usually you do to expressing the difficult vocabularies ?
When I speaking sometimes I ask my friend, but sometimes I also skip the word that I don’t know.

3.      What are strategies that usually you do to communication and learning L2 ?

I usually watching movie, from watching movie I will acquire some vocabularies in the conversation in daily activities context, another one is I know some accents. Besides watching movie I also listening music, because when I listening  the music I feel curious about the meaning, and sometimes I guessing the meaning of the lyric of the song.

Third respondent

1.                1.       What are strategies that usually you do to understanding english textbook ?

First I read all every paragraphs, then I'll guessing the vocabularies that I don’t understand. I give it highlights or mark on vocabularies that I don’t understand. After that, I read from the first sentence and to the last sentence and I get it.  But sometimes if I am not sure of what I’ve get, I write it into my notes and searching the meaning. So I will understand what is the explanation in those book. I like to do those way because it’s really help me.

How often you did it ?

I often did it, because every I read some books and find the difficult vocabularies I will do it as always. I also have different notes in every book that I’ve read.

Have you ever guessing the meaning some of word without looking the dictionary ?

Of course, I guessing when I found difficult vocabularies but after I matching the vocabulary with the context of those sentence and it’s true I will go on. But some vocabularies have a lot of meaning, such as “Face” face it can be you face the problem and it also can be the part of your body. So matching the context of sentence it’s a must, sometimes the meaning is same but sometimes not correctly.

2.                2.      What are strategies that usually you do to expressing the difficult vocabularies ?

Usually I will explain what I want to say, for example let say “run” but Idon’t know it, then I changing it to be “walk fast”

Have you ever using gestures for explaining something ?

Exactly, I often using gestures if what I want to saying have relation with something for example “reading newspaper”, I don’t know “reading” then I will give example using my gestures or miming reading a newspaper or I’ll searching in the internet ans show it.

If you talking to the foreigner, are you using gesture too ?

Yes, of course, if I talk to the foreigner and I don’t know something then I’ll pointed the stuff that I want to say, for example “a box”, I’ll pointed a box around me in order the foreigner know and understand what I mean. And if the foreigner still don’t understand I’ll describe it. For example gudeg, I’ll said gudeg made from what, gudeg is special food from yogyakarta, and so on.

3.                 3.     What are strategies that usually you do to communication and learning L2 ?

First is from the class; second is reading book, it’s an obligatory for me; and the third is watching movie.

From the class, what is your strategy to understanding the subject that teacher taught?

I will making notes, and I’ll pay attention to the teacher and I don’t like if other people disturb me, because if my friend always ask to me or borrow my stuff it make me lost consentration. I should listening to the teacher and making a note. In the home I’ll review the subject again , if I don’t understand I’ll open another book or open internet.

Can you studying with watching tv or listening music ?

No, I can’t studying in a crowded situation, if listening music, the music should be instrumental music.

How about the second, reading a book ?

I love reading, I will reading fiction and non fiction book, also my coursebook, I have schedule to read those book.

How about the third, watching movie ?

When I watching movie I will change the subtitle in English, but sometimes when watching movie the focus divide into 2 first is to the actor and to the subtitle. Watching movie for me it’s good for train to listening and pronounciation, but we also need the grammar in those movie, so subtitle help me to understand the grammar.

E.  Conclusion

We have interviewed three respondents and ask them for explain what are strategies that usually used by them for communication and learning. We give them three questions to make clear their explanation about strategies that they used. Actually, they have their own strategies that usually used by them for communication and learning.
Such as, they used some books in L2, it can be fiction or non fiction book, so they can speak fluently because they had a lot of input of vocabularies or new information from reading and they can improve their ability in reading book, instructuions, news etc in L2. So they wouldn’t find the difficulties in learning L2 because they often train themselves for reading a book in L2; 
They also watching film and change the subtitle in L2, so they can learn how to pronounced it and learning about other cultures cross the world. From watching film they can imitate how to speaking or accents and making a conversation in L2;
Listening music is also they do to learning L2. After they listen the music, they will curious about the meaning and find the lyric then they understanding the meaning.
Another way they also do in the classrom and outside the classroom is such as note taking and reviewing the material of the subject.
They are also asking the teacher to correct them in learning process, and also having discussion with their friends to sharing their ability. When they are don’t understand some word or don’t know what they want to say, they would describe or miming it and the another one is change those word into their own words.

All of those strategies totally having a relations with the theory according to experts who have written above. Such as Word Coinage, Circumlocution, Mime what you need, Codeswitching, Foreignerization, Description, 3 GLL’s Strategies, Cognitive strategies, Social strategies Cognitive Strategies, Metacognitive strategies, Affective strategies.

Researcher : Adita Fiqi R.

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